Spring-Boot natively supports tomcat-jdbc, HikariCP and Commons DBCP. Each Connection Pool is however configured with different properties. In this tutorial we will learn how to configure Tomcat embedded Connection Pool.

Configuring Tomcat JDBC Connection Pool

Tomcat Connection Pool can be configured through the "spring.datasource.tomcat" namespace that can be added to your application.properties file. Here is an example:

spring.datasource.tomcat.initial-size=15
spring.datasource.tomcat.max-wait=20000
spring.datasource.tomcat.max-active=50
spring.datasource.tomcat.max-idle=15
spring.datasource.tomcat.min-idle=8
spring.datasource.tomcat.default-auto-commit=true   

If you want to check the list of available properties that can be invoked through Reflection, check the following table:

spring.datasource.tomcat.default-autoCommit

(boolean) The default auto-commit state of connections created by this pool. If not set, default is JDBC driver default (If not set then the setAutoCommit method will not be called.)

spring.datasource.tomcat.default-readOnly

(boolean) The default read-only state of connections created by this pool. If not set then the setReadOnly method will not be called. (Some drivers don't support read only mode, ex: Informix)

spring.datasource.tomcat.default-transaction-isolation

(String) The default TransactionIsolation state of connections created by this pool. One of the following: (see javadoc )

  • NONE
  • READ_COMMITTED
  • READ_UNCOMMITTED
  • REPEATABLE_READ
  • SERIALIZABLE

If not set, the method will not be called and it defaults to the JDBC driver.

spring.datasource.tomcat.default-catalog

(String) The default catalog of connections created by this pool.

spring.datasource.tomcat.driver-class-name

(String) The fully qualified Java class name of the JDBC driver to be used. The driver has to be accessible from the same classloader as tomcat-jdbc.jar

spring.datasource.tomcat.username

(String) The connection username to be passed to our JDBC driver to establish a connection. Note that method DataSource.getConnection(username,password) by default will not use credentials passed into the method, but will use the ones configured here. See alternateUsernameAllowed property for more details.

spring.datasource.tomcat.password

(String) The connection password to be passed to our JDBC driver to establish a connection. Note that method DataSource.getConnection(username,password) by default will not use credentials passed into the method, but will use the ones configured here. See alternateUsernameAllowed property for more details.

spring.datasource.tomcat.max-active

(int) The maximum number of active connections that can be allocated from this pool at the same time. The default value is 100

spring.datasource.tomcat.max-idle

(int) The maximum number of connections that should be kept in the pool at all times. Default value is maxActive:100 Idle connections are checked periodically (if enabled) and connections that been idle for longer than minEvictableIdleTimeMillis will be released. (also see testWhileIdle)

spring.datasource.tomcat.min-idle

(int) The minimum number of established connections that should be kept in the pool at all times. The connection pool can shrink below this number if validation queries fail. Default value is derived from initialSize:10 (also see testWhileIdle)

spring.datasource.tomcat.initial-size

(int)The initial number of connections that are created when the pool is started. Default value is 10

spring.datasource.tomcat.max-wait

(int) The maximum number of milliseconds that the pool will wait (when there are no available connections) for a connection to be returned before throwing an exception. Default value is 30000 (30 seconds)

spring.datasource.tomcat.test-on-borrow

(boolean) The indication of whether objects will be validated before being borrowed from the pool. If the object fails to validate, it will be dropped from the pool, and we will attempt to borrow another. In order to have a more efficient validation, see validationInterval. Default value is false

spring.datasource.tomcat.test-on-connect

(boolean) The indication of whether objects will be validated when a connection is first created. If an object fails to validate, it will be throw SQLException. Default value is false

spring.datasource.tomcat.test-on-return

(boolean) The indication of whether objects will be validated before being returned to the pool. The default value is false.

spring.datasource.tomcat.test-while-idle

(boolean) The indication of whether objects will be validated by the idle object evictor (if any). If an object fails to validate, it will be dropped from the pool. The default value is false and this property has to be set in order for the pool cleaner/test thread is to run (also see timeBetweenEvictionRunsMillis)

spring.datasource.tomcat.validation-query

(String) The SQL query that will be used to validate connections from this pool before returning them to the caller. If specified, this query does not have to return any data, it just can't throw a SQLException. The default value is null. If not specified, connections will be validation by the isValid() method. Example values are SELECT 1(mysql), select 1 from dual(oracle), SELECT 1(MS Sql Server)

spring.datasource.tomcat.validation-query-timeout

(int) The timeout in seconds before a connection validation queries fail. This works by calling java.sql.Statement.setQueryTimeout(seconds) on the statement that executes the validationQuery. The pool itself doesn't timeout the query, it is still up to the JDBC driver to enforce query timeouts. A value less than or equal to zero will disable this feature. The default value is -1.

spring.datasource.tomcat.validator-class-name

(String) The name of a class which implements the org.apache.tomcat.jdbc.pool.Validator interface and provides a no-arg constructor (may be implicit). If specified, the class will be used to create a Validator instance which is then used instead of any validation query to validate connections. The default value is null. An example value is com.mycompany.project.SimpleValidator.

spring.datasource.tomcat.time-between-eviction-runs-millis

(int) The number of milliseconds to sleep between runs of the idle connection validation/cleaner thread. This value should not be set under 1 second. It dictates how often we check for idle, abandoned connections, and how often we validate idle connections. The default value is 5000 (5 seconds).

spring.datasource.tomcat.num-tests-per-eviction-run

(int) Property not used in tomcat-jdbc-pool.

spring.datasource.tomcat.min-evictable-idle-time-millis

(int) The minimum amount of time an object may sit idle in the pool before it is eligible for eviction. The default value is 60000 (60 seconds).

spring.datasource.tomcat.access-to-underlying-connection-allowed

(boolean) Property not used. Access can be achieved by calling unwrap on the pooled connection. see javax.sql.DataSource interface, or call getConnection through reflection or cast the object as javax.sql.PooledConnection

spring.datasource.tomcat.remove-abandoned

(boolean) Flag to remove abandoned connections if they exceed the removeAbandonedTimeout. If set to true a connection is considered abandoned and eligible for removal if it has been in use longer than the removeAbandonedTimeout Setting this to true can recover db connections from applications that fail to close a connection. See also logAbandoned The default value is false.

spring.datasource.tomcat.remove-abandoned-timeout

(int) Timeout in seconds before an abandoned(in use) connection can be removed. The default value is 60 (60 seconds). The value should be set to the longest running query your applications might have.

spring.datasource.tomcat.log-abandoned

(boolean) Flag to log stack traces for application code which abandoned a Connection. Logging of abandoned Connections adds overhead for every Connection borrow because a stack trace has to be generated. The default value is false.

spring.datasource.tomcat.connection-properties

(String) The connection properties that will be sent to our JDBC driver when establishing new connections. Format of the string must be [propertyName=property;]* NOTE - The "user" and "password" properties will be passed explicitly, so they do not need to be included here. The default value is null.

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